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The Pope enfeoffed it to the Catalan Jaume II the Just, king of the Crown of Aragon a confederation made up of the kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia, plus the peasants of Catalonia , promising him support should he wish to conquer Pisan Sardinia in exchange for Sicily. In Jaume II of Aragon formed an alliance with the kings of Arborea and, following a military campaign which lasted a year or so, occupied the Pisa territories of Cagliari and Gallura along with the city of Sassari, naming them "kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica". In , for reasons of state survival, war broke out between the kingdom of Arborea and the kingdom of "Sardinia and Corsica", part of the Crown of Aragon.

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In the Aragon's seized Alghero and reshaped it into an entirely Catalan city, which still today displays its Iberian origins. In Pere IV of Aragon, called "the Cerimonious", granted legislative autonomy a parliament to the kingdom of "Sardinia and Corsica" which was followed in due course by self-government Viceroy and judicial independence Royal Hearing.

In Marti the younger, king of Sicily ad heir to Aragon, defeated the judicable Sardinians at Sanluri and conquered once and for all the entire land. Even the "kingdom of Sardinia" which in the new title was separated from Corsica since that island never was conquered became Spanish; with the state symbol that of the Four Moors.

Carnival in Sardinia - Sandalyon

Following the failure of the military ventures against the Mulsumen of Tunis and Algiers Carlos V of Spain, in order to defend his Mediterranean territories from the pirate raids by the Africa Berbers, fortified the Sardinian shores with a system of coastal lookout towers.

The kingdom of Sardinia remained Iberian for approximately four hundred years, from to , assimilating a number of the Spanish traditions, customs, linguistic expressions and lifestyles, nowadays vividly portrayed in the folklore parades of S. In , as a consequence of the Spanish War of Succession, the rule of the kingdom of Sardinia passed into the hands of the Austrians who landed on the island. In , with the Treaty of London, the kingdom of Sardinia was handed over to the Dukes of Savoy, princes of Piedmont, who rendered it perfect from imperfect attributing it the summa potestas that is the authority to stipulate international treaties.

The kingdom was then italianised. In , as a consequence of the Napoleonic wars in Italy, the Dukes of Savoy left Turin and took refuge in Cagliari for some fifteen years.

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In the Sardinians spontaneously renounced their state autonomy ad formed a "fusion" with Piedmont in order to have a single parliament, a single magistracy and a single government in Turin. In the Wars of Independence broke out for the Unification of Italy and were led by the kings of Sardinia for thirteen years.

I n the kingdom of Sardinia was transformed into the Italian state founded.

Contemporary Age In by popular referendum Italy became a Republic. Sardinia - administered since by special Statute - is today one of the twenty Italian regions, with 1,, inhabitants spread out over the provinces of Cagliari, Sassari, Oristano and Nuoro, retracing more or less the territories of the four ancient and glorious judicable states.

The Sardinian Cuisine: is a celebration of natural products from the land and surrounding sea. Even today Sardinian cuisine is strictly linked to the seasons and its secret lies in the quality of the ingredients and the simplicity of its dishes. It offers visitors a triumph of unique flavours, with each area boasting a vast selection of local specialities, all prepared according to ancient traditions and customs.

The fine products provided by both the land and sea mean that the choice of delicious main courses is particularly rich. The choice of fish dishes is endless. Among the most celebrated exports are the wines cannonau from the Campidano region, Vermentino from Gallura , the cheeses pecorino romano, fiore sardo and extra virgin olive oil.

However, Sardinian cuisine is also strictly linked to the production of wheat imported by the Romans, who called the island the granary of Rome and flour, traditions which are revealed in the rich selection of local bread, pasta and desserts. In fact, the different types of dried pasta we see today almost certainly originated from the traditional Sardinian pasta, which was left to dry in the open air and in the sun. Each region boasts its own speciality bread, made with special techniques and according to ancient recipes.

Finally the desserts. Sardinia certainly is one of the most charming places of Italy, not only for the natural wonders found in this island, but also for its very ancient and rich traditions; an indissoluble heritage from culture, from places and from people who live here. Rich traditions and cultures which are also found in the ancient heritage of cooking, made of the many traditions which are found in the many areas and places of Sardinia, including wine, which in this land represents an important element of identity and history.

From white wines to reds, an enological path also passing in the other styles and, among them, authentic rarities, extraordinary representatives of the island's wine making, such as Malvasia di Bosa and Vernaccia di Oristano. Two wonderful examples of wines with an extraordinary ancient taste, which give their best with very long times of aging. Sardinia has worth representatives in other wines as well - or better to say - in other grapes too.

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Vermentino is the most renowned white berried grape of the island and from which are being produced - in the whole territory of the region - excellent wines. Cannonau is still the most famous red berried grape of the island, even though since many years other red grapes are getting more and more famous thanks to the excellent results they produced in wine making: Carignan and Bovale.

The richness of grapes in Sardinia goes beyond the ones already mentioned and which represent the most famous ones outside the region. In fact, Sardinia has a pretty interesting heritage of autochthonous grapes and, despite many of them have been introduced by Spaniards, after centuries of adaptation in the territory, today are being considered among the typical grapes of the region.

Of course, here are also found the so called international grapes which are usually added to local varieties, as well as typical grapes from other Italian regions, such as Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Montepulciano and Barbera. According to archaeological studies and researches, vine and wine are present in Sardinia since about 5, years. In fact, are dated back to this era the first findings of amphoras and cups in the area occupied by Nuraghi , the ancient people who lived in the island.

Despite the age of these archaeological findings, it is believed vine was introduced in Sardinia by Phoenicians, during the period in which they occupied the island. In fact, it is believed the introduction of the vitis vinifera occurred in the seventeenth century b. Another important archaeological discovery - dated back to the fourth century b.

In the course of the diggings were also found some grape pips belonging to unidentifiable varieties. Because of the strategic geographical position of the island in the Mediterranean, Sardinia has been - in the course of the centuries - subject to conquests by Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Arabs, Aragonese, Genovese, Pisans and - finally - by Sabaudi. Because of the influence of the people who dominated the island, viticulture and wine making has been strongly affected by the traditions and cultures of the many people, while living alternates periods of decay and of truly splendor.

Among the people who mainly contributed to the development of enology in the island, are remembered the ones coming from the Aegean sea and from the Iberian peninsula. In fact, these people introduced new and fundamental viticultural and enological techniques, as well as the introduction of new grape varieties, still today found in Sardinia where they play an important role. Many of the famous grapes of Sardinia - such as Cannonau and Carignan - have been introduced by Spaniards, however the quantity of autochthonous grapes is pretty interesting and capable of making very good wines.

A fundamental event for the viticulture of Sardinia - as well as for its agriculture - was represented by the promulgation of Carta De Logu.

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It was in Eleonora di Arborea - by continuing the job done by her father Mariano IV - promulgated this important document which regulated the viticulture and agriculture until Carta De Logu had in its goals, the purpose of increasing, safeguarding and incentivizing the cultivation of the vine and the production of wine. Moreover, there were also emanated heavy fines and corporal penalties to anyone not obeying to Carta De Logu's laws, which also provided the cut of the hand to anyone who fired vineyards or furtively uprooted vineyards.

To the ones who did not plant vineyards in their lands, they were confiscated and given to others capable of working them. At the end of feudal times, rural property was abolished and many lands were therefore destined to pastures, then, in - thanks to marquis of Rivarolo - Carta De Logu was reintroduced again, therefore contributing to the development of viticulture in Sardinia. The development of wine making in Sardinia - here as it was everywhere else - was stopped with the arrive of phylloxera: only the vineyards planted in sandy soils could be saved.

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