To be worthy of a luxury watch, not only does a clockwork have to be precise, it also has to look valuable and exude quality. This is why many watch components require functional coatings that are also decorative. Thus, alongside the watchmakers, several electroplating companies also call the Jura Mountains home. Founded in , for the past 10 years STS has been a preferred partner when it comes to fine coatings on watch components.
With its rack plating and bulk processing techniques, STS has made a name for itself among watch manufacturers. So that it can respond quickly to customer requests, besides its subsidiary in La Chaux-de-Fonds, STS also has operations in two other centers of watchmaking: Le Sentier and Develier. From the watch plates to the hands, STS finishes a wide variety of watch components; the orders are correspondingly diverse.
To meet these requirements, not only must the electroplating itself be extremely versatile, but also the quality assurance processes. In modern clockworks, not only does precision count but also their aesthetics. The biggest challenge in coating watch components are the tight production tolerances on already very thin layers. Especially in the movement, the delicate pieces have to fit together absolutely perfectly. Too-thick layers would generate more friction and make the watch inaccurate.
Plus, expensive raw materials such as gold and rhodium must be used as efficiently as possible. Therefore, STS often applies multi-layer coatings with a total thickness of less than a micrometer, for example, 0. The base material of the parts is frequently a copper alloy such as brass.
Using the WinFTM software, the XDAL dependably differentiates between the copper signal coming from the base material and the nickel signal in the coating system. About 4 percent of bicyclists or 2. Note: BHSI does not endorse the optimistic findings of this next study! In addition, the total number of riders killed cited in point two has not been accurate for a decade, and current deaths each year are closer to Statistics from the Consumer Product Safety Commission Bicycle helmet usage has increased from 18 percent in to 50 percent in Bike-related crashes kill people every year and send about , to hospital emergency rooms with injuries Wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury.
Today there are an estimated Here is the Press Release on the study , and here is the whole text. There are other estimates further down this page that we consider more realistic for the nation as a whole. For example, the University of North Carolina has conducted reliable observational studies showing a statewide helmet usage rate of 17 per cent. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Bicycle Use and Hazard Patterns in the United States Note: We recommend caution in using these figures, since a number of people in the bicycle community questioned the validity of the survey techniques used for this study.
Another 6 percent, representing about 4 million riders, reported that they wear helmets sometimes, but less than half of the time. The proportion of children under age 15 who wear helmets all or most of the time was about 15 percent. HF reports in part IV that the low usage rate for children may be partly related to peer pressure. Some studies show that children are not inclined to wear helmets if their social group disapproves of helmet use.
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However, helmet use in all age groups appears to be increasing. Just over half of the current users 53 percent began wearing helmets in the last two years. Usage Data from Actual Observation of Cyclists in Portland Portland, Oregon, has been tracking bicycle traffic and helmet use since , building a unique database.
Here is their report through It has a chart of helmet use by year, and in the appendices are charts by year and gender. Their summary: "Helmet use is at an alltime high, and has risen steadily since the "s. The numbers are impressively high, but most US communities should have higher helmet use rates for commuter and transportation cyclists. Usage Data from Actual Observation of Cyclists in Alaska "Our department initiated a project during the summer of to document the observed use of bike helmets in communities around Alaska.
We needed to develop a statistical baseline of helmet use. We use a formal sampling scheme to select observation sites and then count helmet use among the bicyclists riding by. These observations have been done almost yearly since We also have had a very effective multifaceted helmet campaign plus legislation in the area surrounding Seattle.
Helmet use does vary by area, but at least here the numbers are good and improving slowly. By email, April 23, The state breakdowns seem to track those numbers. Statistics from the State of Utah In the State of Utah published a ten year observational study of helmet use in Utah. It has pages of interesting statistics on helmet use by age groups as well as crashes.
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Statistics from Consumer Reports A risk survey conducted in and published in by Consumer Reports concluded that 58 per cent of American cyclists never wear helmets. It also showed that 24 per cent sometimes do not fasten their seat belts.
Here is the press release describing the article. The survey is available to subscribers on the CU Web site. Usage data from a Consumer Reports poll This article on a Consumer Reports poll taken in March says that "82 percent said they felt it was "very" or "extremely" important to wear a helmet while cycling, but only 44 percent said they would actually wear one. The rate has improved since , when it was We have a slide from their presentation.
Stats from a Swedish literature search Sweden has conducted an international literature search, summarized in this study published in See page four for the English abstract. They found that helmet laws can achieve level of usage not achieved by education alone, that helmet laws reduce head injuries, and that helmet laws can result in a reduction of cycling by young people. We have the abstract up on our site if you can"t deal with the. Stats from a article on Korean helmet use this article in the Korea Times indicates that 3 percent of Korean children now wear helmets, and "In , bicycle accidents accounted for 14 percent of traffic accident victims with 46 percent of them being under 20 years old.
Stats from an Aussie study of helmet use and injuries Here is a study from Western Australia that shows that helmet use has reduced the incidence and severity of head injuries there. It is based on hospital data, and shows that the number of closed head injuries was cut in half with increased helmet use over time, though other injuries did not change significantly in number. The head injuries were less serious, and hospital stays were shorter. Reported July 25, in a blog of the San Francisco Examiner.
I replicated my observations and preliminary analyses indicate helmet use is holding steady at around percent. Considering the huge medical and public health communities in Boston and the affluence of Back Bay where I collected the data, one would certainly expect helmet use among riders there to exceed any national average.
Cost of Injuries Our own page on costs of treating head injured riders. Approximately 8, additional children were hospitalized for bicycle-related injuries, and another , were treated and released in emergency departments. Bicycle helmets prevent 52 to 60 percent of bike-related head injury deaths for all ages , as well as an estimated 68 to 85 percent of nonfatal head and scalp injuries, and 65 percent of upper and middle face injuries, even when misuse is considered.
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Thus, bicycle helmets significantly reduce the total medical costs for bike-related head injuries. It is very expensive to treat a child with a bike-related head injury.
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These medical costs may sometimes last the child"s lifetime. For example, in , bicycle crashes to children ages 4 to 15 caused 52, nonfatal head injuries and 93, nonfatal face scalp injuries. Universal bicycle helmet use by children aged 4 to 15 would prevent 1, to 1, of these permanently disabling injuries. These cost savings estimates may be conservative, as they ignore other significant benefits. For example: Parents will spend less time and money caring for injured children.
Lawyers will file fewer lawsuits seeking compensation for child cyclists" injuries. Universal bike helmet use by children aged 0 to 14 would prevent , to , bicycle-related injuries annually. Parents report that 85 percent of children who own bicycle helmets wear them. The usage rate does not vary by income. Note: All costs are in dollars and were computed using the methodology outlined by Miller, Romano, and Spicer. Numbers may not correspond to totals due to rounding.
Helmet use can reduce the risk of head injury and severe brain injury. Apart from the automobile, bicycles are tied to more childhood injuries than any other consumer product, including trampolines, ladders and swimming pools.