It discusses the connotative value of the loop and its contribution to creating the sort of cross-cultural unity that the Obama campaign wanted to forge. The Glossary pp. The definitions often refer to pages in the main text for a more detailed explanation. It also contains a few substantial entries that should have been footnotes but did not fit on the relevant page. To save space and to avoid confusion about which appendix to consult when checking source references, this book has only one reference appendix p.
That document also explains the referencing system used in this book. Dates of access to internet sites are six-digit strings inside square brackets.
YouTube references are reduced in length from 42 to 13 characters by using the character code appearing in their absolute URL addresses, preceded by the YouTube icon E. For example:. The index section consists of:  an alphabetical index p. The alphabetical index gives page references to all proper names appearing in the book, and to titles of musical works, songs, tracks, albums, films, TV productions, etc.
Footnote text is also included in the indexes. Symbols used in the indexes are explained on page Some parts of this book are based on encyclopedia articles. This means that insights readers might gain from some parts of this book are more likely to derive from conceptual rather than perceptual learning. That in its turn requires quick access to the meaning of terms other than those under current discussion.
That will cause no problems for familiar with the rudiments of conventional harmony but others may want to read pages and to consult Table 14 p. Similarly, readers with no knowledge of lead-sheet chord shorthand E7, F m7L5 etc. Musical source references follow the same basic system as bibliographical source references. In such cases the title of each tune will be found, listed in alphabetical order, in the Reference Appendix, either complete or with at least cross-reference to the complete publishing details elsewhere in the appendix.
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Complete publishing details are provided so that readers will know, in cases where more than one recording exists of the same work, to which version I am referring. Such information is important when I provide timings pinpointing musical events within recorded works. The majority of musical works referred to have at one time or another been published as recordings. In the early s it would have been absurd to expect readers to have access to more than a very small proportion of those recordings.
In , however, it is usually a simple matter. The whole process of checking a precise musical event in just one of innumerable songs took me a few seconds.
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Of course, it should be remembered that while it is not illegal to listen to music posted on the internet, downloading copyrighted music without payment or permission may well be. Click on the relevant title to hear the example you need mostly in mp3 format, a few as midi files.
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If you object to any posting on grounds of copyright ownership, please contact me and I will remove the offending item or contact my lawyer for advice. In order to minimise hard-copy production costs, music examples appear in pocket-score size on the page. The image resolution of notation images is mostly d. Some readers may find the miniature-score format problematic. If so, almost every music example in this book can be viewed at, or downloaded full-size from, G tagg. I use cit. The problem is that terms and concepts developed to denote and explain the tonal workings of the euroclassical repertoire cannot realistically be expected to do the same for all other types of tonality.
To claim otherwise would be like insisting that concepts developed to explain rules of the English language automatically apply to, say, Chinese or Finnish. The obvious consequence for this book is that conventions of tonal denotation cannot only be those of standard Western music theory. It also means that I have to introduce terms and abbreviations unfamiliar to those raised on Schenker or Riemann.
This section of the Preface does little more than summarise, with minimal discussion, the basic conventions of tonal denotation and abbreviation in this book. To distinguish between, for example, E as the note E, E as lead-sheet chord shorthand for a tertial major triad with the note E as its root, and E as the key or mode in which the note E is tonic, the following typographical conventions are used.
For extra clarity a natural sign is sometimes added after a note name, e. Names of open strings are given according to instrumental convention, e. Roman-letter note names e. For further explanation see p. When dealing with tonality inside and outside the euroclassical sphere of tertial-ionian, major-minor music, comparison of tonal vocabulary is an absolute necessity. Such comparison involves reasoning based on the placement of scale degrees within the octave, which, in its turn, requires a concise way of referring relatively to notes and chords. See also Intervals, p. As shown in the left column of Table 2 p.
The latter is simply shorter. Intervals differences of pitch , are mainly designated as ordinals, qualified where necessary, for example second, third, minor third, augmented fourth, diminished fifth, octave. Intervals and scale degrees specific to the euroclassical and related tonal idioms are sometimes referred to using the vocabulary of conventional Western music theory supertonic, mediant, etc. Those labels and their equivalents as numeric scale degrees are set out in Table 5 on page When referring to register it is sometimes necessary to indicate in which octave notes are pitched.
Octave numerals are subscripted to avoid confusion with the superscripted characters used in chord shorthand, footnote flags, etc. Scale degree chord shorthand roman numerals follows principles similar to those used for scale degrees p.
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Nevertheless, the roman-numeral denotation of chords is used extensively see Table 2, p. Three systems are used for the concise denotation of chords:  lead-sheet shorthand,  quartal chord designation and  the roman numeral system. A lead sheet is a piece of paper displaying the basic information necessary for performance of a piece of popular music see pp. Lead-sheet chord shorthand is the system of chord symbols used on lead sheets. The roman-numeral chord shorthand system is explained in Chapter 7 pp.
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Unlike lead-sheet chord shorthand, but like scale-degree abbreviations, roman-numeral chord designation is relative, in that each roman number designates, in any key or mode, the scale degree on which the chord is built see Table 2, p. The superscripted arabic numerals indicate alterations to the basic tertial triad built on that scale degree, e. With the dorian D-mode as default for the scale-degree and roman-numeral shorthand systems, there would have been three modes sharpwards aeolian, phrygian, locrian and three flatwards mixolydian, ionian, lydian ; and the assignment of apposite accidentals would have been more equitable.
This book contains hundreds of notated music examples and figures containing musical notation. As explained earlier, many music examples cited as notation in this book can also be both heard as audio and viewed in better resolution on line see p. Sometimes I transcribe as a typical keyboard player.
I apologise if my voicings of guitar chords are wrong. The idea is to save space, cut down on leger lines, and to avoid switching between G and F clefs. Note names or chord designations occurring in sequence are usually separated by hyphens or by a simple space e. To highlight the unidirectional aspect of tonal progressions, a right-pointing arrow is sometimes used, e.
A chord shuttle oscillation between two chords is indicated by a double-headed arrow, e. Diagonal arrows are used to indicate pitch direction, e. As a general rule I put musical section letters in italics between single quotes e.
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A phonetic font is occasionally used to suggest the UK pronunciation of words according to the symbols shown in Table 3. Z U no, know, toe, toad, cold, low, although, cf. N singing, synchronise, think, gong, incredible, Z genre [! Spelling generally follows the in-house style of the Cambridge University Press journal Popular Music, for example realise, advertisement, organisation, colour, travelled, focussing, centre, programme, etc. Since those cultures and ethnic identities are long gone, the modes named after them have for many centuries been a mere convention bearing no relation to the peoples whose names they once bore.