More than 4 billion people still do not have access to the Internet, and 90 percent are from the developing world.
Bridging this digital divide is crucial to ensure equal access to information and knowledge, and as a consequence foster innovation and entrepreneurship. Investment in infrastructure and innovation is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the Agenda for Sustainable Development. Learn more about the targets for Goal 9. The SDG Fund understands that access to technologies and resilient infrastructure may have a long-lasting impact on inclusive growth. Some SDG Fund programmes include infrastructure and technology elements to bring opportunities to the most vulnerable and those left out of inclusive value chains.
It is well documented that income inequality is on the rise, with the richest 10 percent earning up to 40 percent of total global income.
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The poorest 10 percent earn only between 2 and 7 percent of total global income. In developing countries, inequality has increased by 11 percent if we take into account the growth of population. These widening disparities are a call for action that require the adoption of sound policies to empower the bottom percentile of income earners and promote economic inclusion of all regardless of sex, race or ethnicity. Income inequality is a global problem that requires global solutions. This involves improving the regulation and monitoring of financial markets and institutions, encouraging development assistance and foreign direct investment to regions where the need is greatest.
Facilitating the safe migration and mobility of people is also key to bridging the widening divide. Reducing inequalities is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the Agenda for Sustainable Development. Learn more about the targets for Goal The SDG Fund programmes undertake situation analysis to understand what inequalities underpin the challenges in the communities and countries where we work. By doing this, the programmes pay special attention to inequalities suffered by women, girls, indigenous people, older people, youth, and those living in geographical isolated communities.
By , that figure will have risen to 6. Sustainable development cannot be achieved without significantly transforming the way we build and manage our urban spaces. The rapid growth of cities in the developing world, coupled with increasing rural to urban migration, has led to a boom in mega-cities.
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In , there were ten mega-cities with 10 million inhabitants or more. In , there are 28 mega-cities, home to a total million people. Extreme poverty is often concentrated in urban spaces, and national and city governments struggle to accommodate the rising population in these areas. Making cities safe and sustainable means ensuring access to safe and affordable housing, and upgrading slum settlements. It also involves investment in public transport, creating green public spaces, and improving urban planning and management in a way that is both participatory and inclusive.
Sustainable city life is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the Agenda for Sustainable Development. Achieving economic growth and sustainable development requires that we urgently reduce our ecological footprint by changing the way we produce and consume goods and resources. Agriculture is the biggest user of water worldwide, and irrigation now claims close to 70 percent of all freshwater appropriated for human use.
The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way we dispose of toxic waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this goal. Encouraging industries, businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting developing countries to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by A large share of the world population is still consuming far too little to meet even their basic needs.
Halving per capita global food waste at the retailer and consumer levels is also important for creating more efficient production and supply chains. This can help with food security and shift us towards a more resource efficient economy. Responsible production and consumption is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The SDG Fund is collaborating with partners, including from the private sector, to promote more responsible consumption and outsourcing practices, with a particular focus on ensuring that local farmers can obtain a fairer share of the value generated across the value chain. There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their level.
Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now. Strengthening the resilience and adaptive capacity of more vulnerable regions, such as land locked countries and island states, must go hand in hand with efforts to raise awareness and integrate measures into national policies and strategies.
It is still possible, with the political will and a wide array of technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This requires urgent collective action. We see these services as public goods and as unlikely to emerge spontaneously through the operation of market forces and private initiatives alone.
It calls for all-inclusive governance and collective action. Associated with urban advantage is the widely held view of cities characterised by dysfunction and microeconomic consequences such as poor housing, inadequate urban services, inadequate access to infrastructure and limited capacity to cope with impending disasters Cardona et al.
From that background, this paper adopts the framework of Dickson et al. According to Dickson et al. Thus, urban uncertainties reveal the outcome of complex development policies, existing vulnerabilities and exposure of the population to hazard events Cyr ; Dickson et al. According to Pelling and Wisner and Dodman et al. This assertion further resonates with Cardona et al.
In furtherance to unpacking the processes of these risks, this article adopts the concept of the urban penalty to discuss the implications of these complexities and highlight the spatial dynamics of these uncertainties characterising the growth of Wa. The urban penalty primarily theorises that increasing morbidity of an urban population is because of cumulatively poor environmental and social conditions in cities experiencing rapid growth Dodman et al.
Commenting on the possible evidence of the urban penalty in the sub-Saharan regions, Gould mentioned that:.
This highlights the current situation in large cities, including emerging cities such as Wa, where the urban penalty is evident because of the concentration of poor people and their exposure to poor physical and social conditions resulting from urban governance Freudenberg et al. The urban poor, who are mostly characterised by their informal settlements and slums, poor housing conditions, poor access to potable water sources, poor sanitation and drainage facilities among others, are the most affected population paying these penalties McGranahan Dickson et al.
The implication and evidence of this penalty are increasing disease epidemics such as cholera, diarrhoea, malaria and typhoid among the urban poor McGranahan ; Songsore et al. Conclusively, these challenges unwrap decades of development efforts and reverse the gains of poverty reduction UNISDR Bendimerad corroborated this viewpoint, stating that disaster risk damages infrastructure, destroys the environment, decreases economic potential, disrupts small businesses and reduces human capital as a result of deaths and injuries.
Wa is the last of the ten regional capitals created in Ghana in GSS a and located in the north-western part of Ghana see Figure 1.
The shift in the economic structure from agriculture to services further reveals the pattern and trend of many Ghanaian cities, whose urban processes are built on population increase without any influence of manufacturing. The population census report reveals that the municipality recorded the highest concentration Indicatively, although Wa is the least urbanised in the hierarchy of regional capitals in Ghana, it is indeed experiencing rapid growth.
The genesis of urbanism in Wa has its root in the 15th century, when Wa became the headquarters of the Wala State, engaging in major trade activities with then-Islamic Mande and Hausa traders Songsore Large-scale urbanisation, therefore, commenced in , when the Upper West region was carved out of the then Upper Region with Wa as the regional capital, an attempt to bridge the development gap between the area and the rest of the country GSS a. Subsequently, in , the decentralisation policy of adopted by Ghana upgraded Wa to municipal status through Legislative Instrument WMA More recently, the establishment of the University for Development Studies Wa Campus in and the Wa Polytechnic in Peprah has increased the population of Wa.
In addition, the completion of major trunk roads the Wa—Kumasi trunk road, the Wa—Tamale trunk road is observed to have further opened the Wa Municipality for easy movement of goods and services. These factors, coupled with the municipality serving as an economic growth pole in the region, have attracted many tertiary students, civil and public servants into the municipality. Using Wa Municipality as a case to understand the processes of risks in emerging cities, the study used a mixed research method approach. The quantitative method adopted the use of a questionnaire, which was administered to respondents sampled through a four-level multistage sampling technique.
The first stage involved the stratification of the municipality into high-class residences, low-class residences, middle-class residences and newly developed residences using the criteria of income levels and infrastructure availability, data that were obtained from the Town and Country Planning Department of Wa Municipal Assembly. The high-class residences are characterised by an affluent population residing in low-density and well-planned communities with access to social services including potable water, sanitation facilities and proper solid waste disposal systems.
The other areas, especially the low-class residential areas and newly developing areas, are characterised by a high-density population with poor housing conditions and deteriorating social services.
Integrating Slums to their Cities and Towns
The second stage involved random selection of one community from each of the stratified areas. The study selected Social Security and National Insurance Trust residence to represent the high-income residence, Kumbiehe as the newly developed area, Kpaguri as the middle-income residence and Mangu as the low-income residence. In the third stage, a simple random selection method was employed to select houses in the communities. However, because of the haphazard nature of settlements in the other three communities, settlements were clustered into four zones using landmarks and streets as boundaries and a simple random sampling technique was applied to select the houses.
The last stage involved the selection of household heads who responded to the survey questions. A proportional allocation method was adopted to ensure fair representation in each community. The population of these communities from which the samples were drawn was as follows: low-income residences, ; middle-income, ; high-income, ; and newly developed areas, This result discloses the population density of the municipality, where the low-income residents, for instance, have a high population density compared to the high-income areas.
In addition, this feature also reveals the population distribution in most municipalities in Ghana where there is evidence of high-class residential areas with low population density and low-class residential areas with high population density. The questionnaire probed the socio-economic characteristics of residents and their daily practices of solid waste disposal, sanitation and access to potable water.
Qualitative interviews were also conducted to complement the survey results. Semi-structured, open-ended questions were used to interview the key stakeholders.
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