Metaphysics, which studies the nature of existence, is closely related to Epistemology, the study of knowledge and how we know what we do about the world around us. Ethics, the study of how individuals should act, depends on Epistemology, because we need knowledge to make good choices. Politics studies human interaction. Aesthetics studies the value of things. Logic is about the symbolic representation of language and thought processes. Once the domain of Aristotle, the foundation of the exact sciences must now take into account relativity, uncertainty and incompleteness.
The Portal of Beauty: Towards a Theology of Aesthetics by Bruno Forte
Dealing with nature, is one of the branches of philosophy. But before anything is done, the meaning of philosophy should be understood. A philosopher of religion must be objective. Anyone who is ready to study philosophy should be able to attack and defend. In other definitions logic is the study of reasoning. It can also be described as the study of strength of the evident links between the premises and the conclusion.
Logic is further divided into deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning proceeds from a general statement to a particular statement , it is mostly a valid argument given that is tautological in nature this means that the conclusion bares no new knowledge that it is missing in the premises. Inductive argument this reasoning perceives from a particular statement to a general statement this reasoning is mostly uterlised in the scientific researches. It was the way students referred to a specific book in the works of Aristotle, and it was a book on First Philosophy.
The assumption that the word means "beyond physics" is misleading Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the study of "first principles" and "being" ontology. In other words, Metaphysics is the study of the most general aspects of reality, pertaining to subjects such as substance, identity, the nature of the mind, and free will.
It is a study of nature, the nature of reality, and the nature of the world in which humans live. Logic is the study of correct reasoning. However the subject is grounded, the task of the logician is the same: to advance an account of valid and fallacious inference to allow one to distinguish. Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the "science study of morality". In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is "good" or "right".
The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy. Its the study of right and wrong in human endeavors. Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that explores the creation and appreciation of beauty through critical analysis and reflection.
Philosophy of Education: Fairly self-explanatory. A minor branch, mainly concerned with what is the correct way to educate a person. Philosophy of History: Fairly minor branch not as minor as education , although highly important to Hegel and those who followed him, most notably Marx. It is the philosophical study of history, particularly concerned with the question whether history i. Hegel argued that it was, as did Marx.
Philosophy of Language: Ancient branch of philosophy which gained prominence in the last century under Wittgenstein. Basically concerned with how our languages affect our thought.
Verbal art is the hymn of praise in which the Eternal and his works are represented. Architecture reveals to us the lines of the well-built city of God's creation. Music is the echo of the eternal Gloria. In the pictoral arts, we found images.
He then asks what all the arts have in common from a theological point of view, and how the "intelletto" of the artist is related to God's creative Spirit. Both share in the task of "representation" that is made possible and necessary by God's self-revelation. Since my purpose here is merely to exemplify one way of understanding the project of "theological aesthetics," for the moment I will not pursue the content of Van der Leeuw's theology beyond this brief summary. I shall return in later chapters both to the notion of the image of God in Christ and to Van der Leeuw's analyses of the theological meaning of the individual arts.
From the Beauty of Theology to the Theology of Beauty: The Theological Aesthetics of Hans Urs von Balthasar If the notion of "theological aesthetics" has gained some currency in contemporary theology, it is largely due to the work of Hans Urs von Balthasar, whose magistral work Herrlichkeit The Glory of the Lord signified the opening of a new approach in twentieth-century Catholic thought.
It is the fullness of God's deity, the emerging, self-expressing and selfmanifesting reality of all that God is. It is God's being in so far as this is itself a being which declares itself. God's all-sufficiency means that God is joyous in essence, and that in God creatures find their fulfillment and joy. Barth's theology here echoes the Patristic and Scholastic idea of creation "for the glory of God. God wills them and loves them because, far from having their existence of themselves and their meaning in themselves, they have their being and existence in the movement of the divine self-glorification, in the transition to them of His immanent joyfulness.
It is their destiny to offer a true if inadequate response in the temporal sphere to the jubilation with which the Godhead is filled from eternity to eternity. In and with this quality it speaks and conquers, persuades and convinces. It does not merely assume this quality. It is proper to it. It is to describe not merely the naked fact of His revelation or its power, but the shape and form in which it is a fact and is power.
It is to say that God has this superior force, this power of attraction, which speaks for itself, which wins and conquers, in the fact that He is beautiful, divinely beautiful, beautiful in His own way, in a way that is His alone, beautiful as the unattainable primal beauty, yet really beautiful.
He does not have it, therefore, merely as a fact or a power. Or rather, He has it as a fact and a power in such a way that He acts as the One who gives pleasure, creates desire and rewards with enjoyment.
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And He does it because He is pleasant, desirable, full of enjoyment, because He is the One who is pleasant, desirable, full of enjoyment, because first and last He alone is that which is pleasant, desirable and full of enjoyment. God loves us as the One who is worthy of love as God.
by Forte, Bruno
This is what we mean when we say that God is beautiful. And where it is recognized as the form of the divine being it will necessarily be felt as beauty. Inevitably when the perfect divine being declares itself, it also radiates joy in the dignity and power of its divinity, and thus releases the pleasure, desire and enjoyment of which we have spoken, and is in this way, by means of this form, persuasive and convincing.
And this persuasive and convincing form must necessarily be called the beauty of God. The "form or way or manner in which God is perfect is also itself perfect, the perfect form. The doctrine of the Trinity expands this idea: God's being is not self-enclosed and "pure divine being," but reaches out in self-sharing. As the triunity-and by this we mean in the strict and most proper sense, God Himself--is the basis of the power and dignity of the divine being. For this is the particular function of this form. It is radiant, and what it radiates is joy. It attracts and therefore it conquers.
It is, therefore, beautiful. Barth cites Anselm of Canterbury's dictum that the ratio sought by faith is not only utilitas but also pulchritudo that isspeciosa super intellectum hominum Cur Deus Homo, I, i. Not only is it delightful [delectabile quiddam] Monologion, 6 , but this delight is its first purpose. But again, and above all, reflection and discussion of the aesthetics of theology can hardly be counted a legitimate and certainly not a necessary task of theology.
Staying in the Room
In view of what the biblical testimony says about God it would be an unjustified risk to try to bring the knowledge of God under the denominator of the beautiful even in the same way as we have done in our consideration of these leading concepts. It is not a leading concept. Not even in passing can we make it a primary motif in our understanding of the whole being of God as we did in the case of these other concepts. It is true, of course, that the object with which it has to do has its characteristic and quite distinctive beauty which it would be unpardonable, because ungrateful, to overlook or to fail to find pleasing.
But the moment dogmatics even temporarily surrenders to and loses itself in the contemplation of this beauty as such, instead of letting itself be held by the object, this beauty becomes the beauty of an idol. It [theology] must not turn its attention and give itself to that which edifies in general however sweet or bitter. When it is orderly in this respect, and only then, it will be continually struck by the beauty of its object, and moved, willy-nilly, to genuine and grateful contemplation.
If we say now that God is beautiful, and make this statement the final explanation of the assertion that God is glorious, do we not jeopardize or even deny the majesty and holiness and righteousness of God's love? Do we not bring God in a sinister because in a sense intimate way into the sphere of man's oversight and control, into proximity to the ideal of all human striving?
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Do we not bring the contemplation of God into suspicious proximity to that contemplation of the world which in the last resort is the self-contemplation of an urge for life which does not recognise its limits? Certainly we have every reason to be cautious here. Even the idea of the beauty of Christ, popular in medieval piety, "was always an alien element, not accepted with a very good conscience, and always looked on and treated with a certain mistrust.
Theology at any rate hardly knew what to make of the idea and would have nothing to do with it. Balthasar's Theology of God's Beauty Barth's comments and reservations about the notion of the beautiful in theology are a good starting point for understanding Balthasar's project.
First, what Balthasar means by "theological aesthetics" is very much in the spirit of Barth: a theology of revelation centered on God's "glory" "Herrlichkeit," the title of the work revealed in Christ. Second, however, Balthasar's work is also intended as a "correction" of Barth. Balthasar sees Protestant theology's rejection of aesthetics as the result of its refusal of the analogy of being. This refusal is consistent with a dialectical rather than an analogical conception of the relation between grace and nature.